Ch Tahir Rafiq

Biology : 9th
Q.No. 1
Define biodiversity?
Answer :
The biodiversity of an ecosystem can be defined as variety with a species and among the species.
Q.No. 2
Write the importance of biodiversity?
Answer :
1.    Biodiversity provide food for humans.
2.    We get a significant proportion of drugs from biological sources directly or indirectly.
3.    A wide range of industrial materials e.g. building materials, fibers, dyes, resins, gums, adhesives and oil are derived directly from plants.
4.    Biodiversity plays important role in making and maintaining ecosystem.
5.    Biodiversity plays a part in regulating the chemistry of our atmosphere and water supply.
6.    Biodiversity is directly involved in recycling nutrients and providing fertile soils.
Q.No. 3
Define classification?
Answer :
Categorizing of living organisms by biologists into groups and subgroups on the basis of their similarities and dissimilarities is called classification.
Q.No. 4
Define taxonomy?
Answer :
The branch of biology which deals with classification is called taxonomy.
Q.No. 5
Define systematics?
Answer :
The branch which deals with classification and also with traces the evolutionary history of organisms is called systematics.
Q.No. 6
Write the aims of classification?
Answer :
1.    To determine similarities and differences among organisms so that they can be studied easily.
2.    To find the evolutionary relationship among organisms.
Q.No. 7
Define taxonomy hierarchy?
Answer :
The groups into which organisms are classified are known as taxonomic categories or taxa and these taxa from a ladder, called taxonomy hierarchy.
Q.No. 8
Write the classification of human and pea.
Answer :
Q.No. 9
Define species?
Answer :
Species is the basic unit of classification. A species is a group of organisms which can interbreed freely among them and produce fertile offspring.
Q.No. 10
Write the role of Abu-Usman Umar Aljahiz in biology?
Answer :
In 700s, he described the characteristics of 350 species of animals in his book. He wrote a lot about the life of ants.
Q.No. 11
Write the role of Ibn e Rushd in biology?
Answer :
Ibn e Rushd (Averroes) translated Aristotle’s book “De Anima” in Arabic.
Q.No. 12
Write the role of Carolus Linnaeus in biology?
Answer :
He grouped species according to similar physical characteristics. He introduced three kingdom named vegetables, minerals and animals. His kingdom system flopped but his rules of classification applicable still now.
Q.No. 13
Who introduced five kingdom systems?
Answer :
In 1967, Robert Whittaker introduced five kingdom systems. This system is based on:
1.    The level of cellular organization i.e. prokaryotic, unicellular eukaryotic and multicellular eukaryotic.
2.    The principal of nutrition i.e. photosynthesis, absorption and ingestion.
Q.No. 14
Write the modification of Margulis and Schwartz?
Answer :
In 1988, Margulis and Schwartz modified the five kingdom classification system of Whittaker by considering cellular organization and mode of nutrition. They classified the organisms into the same five kingdoms as proposed by Whitaker.
Q.No. 15
Define simple multicellular?
Answer :
Simple multicellular means that they do not have multicellular sex organs and do not form embryo during their life cycle.
Q.No. 16
Write the status of virus?
Answer :
1.    Viruses are acellular i.e. they do not have cellular organization. Viruses are not considered as organisms and they are not included in the five kingdoms classification system.
2.    Viruses show some characters of living organisms and also show some characters of non-living organisms.
3.    Viruses contain either RNA or DNA, normally encased in protein coat.
4.       They produce only in living cells, where they cause a number of diseases.
5.    Viruses due to crystalline nature are considered as non-living.
Q.No. 17
What do you know about Prions and Viroid?
Answer :
Prions are composed of protein only and act as infectious particle in plants. Prions cause infectious diseases in certain plants.
Viroid are composed of circular RNA only and act as infectious particles, cause diseases in certain plants.
Q.No. 18
Define binomial nomenclature?
Answer :
It is the method of giving scientific names to living organisms.
Q.No. 19
Write the scientific name of onion, sea star and house crow?
Answer :
Common name
Scientific name
Allium cepa
Sea star
Asterias rubens
House crow
Corvus splendens
Q.No. 20
Define Extinct species?
Answer :
A species that no longer lives in an ecosystem is said to be extinct species.
For example; Dinosaur
Q.No. 21
Define Endanger species?
Answer :
A species is called endanger when it is at risk of extinction in near future.
For example; Indus Dolphin, Marco polo sheep etc.
Q.No. 22
Write a note on sea star?
Answer :
Sea star eats mussels. If sea stars are removed from a region in ocean, mussels rapidly increase in numbers. Large numbers of mussels prey on small animals and become dangerous for their existence.
Q.No. 23
Write a note on Eucalyptus?
Answer :
Eucalyptus plants were imported from Australia and introduced in Pakistan. These plants consume more water and have disturbed the level of underground water. It harms other small plants that grow near them.
Q.No. 24
Define deforestation?
Answer :
Deforestation means cutting down of trees for the conversion of forest to non-forest land.
Q.No. 25
Write a note on Indus Dolphin?
Answer :
According to WWF P, only 600 animals of this species are left today in the Indus river. The population of this species declined because of various factors, including water pollution, poaching and destruction of habitat.
Q.No. 26
Write a note on Marco polo sheep?
Answer :
Marco polo sheep are mostly found in the Khunjrab national Park and nearby areas. The sheep have an endanger status and their numbers have been rapidly decreasing in the last two decades.
Q.No. 27
Write a note on Houbara bustard?
Answer :
This bird flies to Pakistan in winter from former Soviet territory and settles in Cholistan and Thar deserts. The decline in its population is due to hunting by foreigner and destruction of its habitat.
Q.No. 28
What is the difference between the modes of nutrition of fungi and animals?
Answer :
The mode of nutrition of fungi is absorptive heterotroph while the mode of nutrition of animal is ingestive heterotroph.
Q.No. 29
It is difficult to use the criterion of interbreeding to define species of unicellular organisms. Why?
Answer :
Species of unicellular organisms reproduce asexually and do not interbreed with one another. Therefore, It is difficult to use the criterion of interbreeding to define species of unicellular organisms.
Q.No. 30
What are the contribution of Whitaker, Margulis and Schwartz?
Answer :
Robert Whitaker introduced the five kingdom classification system. Margulis and Schwartz modified the five kingdom classification of Whitaker.